Health:Obesity and Overweight are the accumulation of fat in excess that deviate from normal impairing the health of an individual.
What is Obesity ?
Obesity is the main reason for the increase in mortality rates and is known to cause chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease and stroke, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders, cancers including endometrial, breast, ovarian, prostate, liver, gallbladder, spleen, kidney, and colon. More consumption and less physical activity will result in an unhealthy accumulation of energy stores as fat.
Overweight and obesity are the reasons for a non-communicable disease like
- Premature death
- Physical disability
- Breathing difficulties
- High risk for fractures
- Predisposing factors to insulin resistance and psychological disorders
Obesity and overweight occur when a person is unable to exercise because of the availability of transports that helps in commuting to their destination. If a person has a metabolic disorder because of prolonged sitting and lack of movement, this gives rise to overweight further resulting in obesity. Sleep apnoea such as inability to sleep results in mood disorders craving sugary foods that result in weight gain.
Factors responsible for obesity:
- Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle
- Intake of increased sugar and salt
- Consuming processed foods
- Fat rich diet
- Consuming excess portions
- Environment and genetics
- Adverse effects of the medicine
- Leptin resistance
- Hormonal imbalance
- Hypertension and hyperlipidemia
- Food addiction like Bulimia
How to measure Obesity ?
Obesity can be measured by dividing the weight in kg by height in m sq. and is tallied with an obesity chart to decide the severity of your obesity. If the weight gain around the waist circumference is 35 inches is obesity in women and 40 inches in men.
Abdominal fat may be a result of metabolic disorders causing diabetes. However, the fat on the thighs and hips is less likely the reason for unhealthy problems. The metabolic syndrome resulting in weight gain include increased weight circumference, increased triglyceride levels in the blood, low HDL levels, increased blood pressure, enhanced levels of fasting blood glucose. Post-menopausal women had a high risk of obesity because of hormonal changes in the body. Body Mass Index does not differentiate between muscle mass, body fat, and bone density.
Low-income and middle-income country children are susceptible to insufficient prenatal infant and child nutrition. Moreover, children are exposed to high salty, sugary, fat, and energy-dense and micronutrient poor food. The dietary patterns inclusive of unhealthy eating habits with less physical activity increases obesity in children although malnutrition or less nutrition remains unresolved.
Eating junk foods also result in overweight and excess fat accumulation, creating unhealthy eating patterns craving for oily and foods rich in fat. Unhealthy eating habits increase temptation and less self-control snacking on wafers, burgers, and other fried foods that tend to increase body weight.
Symptoms of Obesity :
Aching knees: are because of fat and may exert pressure on your foot and ankle thus making your back stiff and may have trouble walking.
Backache: Excess fat accumulation may develop spondylosis, spinal stenosis, or vertebral fracture
Skin problems: Fat accumulation on the body and stretches on the skin stem from hormonal imbalances with areas of fat around the neck and body and appear as skin folds and moisture retention in skin folds can give rise to the growth of bacteria and fungi.
Depression: Obesity may hamper self-confidence because of body shaming some of them may refrain from social gatherings.
Heartburn: Excess fat may exert pressure on the digestive system and the food in the stomach is pushed towards the oesophagus pressurizing the chest and throat area, further causing acid reflux.
Snore: Snoring may occur because of fat accumulation around the neck giving rise to obstructive sleep apnoea.
Irregular periods: Obese women experience irregular periods or nearly absence of periods because of hormonal imbalance.
Facts about obesity:
- Obesity worldwide has spiked since 1975
- 1.9 billion adults over 18 years were overweight. In 2016, 650 million were obese.
- 39% of adults around 18 years of age were overweight in 2016 and 13% were obese.
- World’s population globally live-in countries with high risk related to obesity and overweight than underweight
- In 2019, 38 million children under the age of 5 were overweight and obese
- More than 340 million children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 were obese in 2019.
- Obesity can be prevented
1. 39% of adults aged 18 years and above (39%of men and 40%of women) were overweight.
2. 13%of adult’s population11%men and 15% of women were obese in 2015.
3. The prevalence of worldwide obesity nearly magnified between 1975 and 2016.
Obesity in India:
- From 1998 to 2018 obesity has magnified in urban populations in the regions of higher socio-economic states obesity has been rapidly spreading because of a sedentary lifestyle and consuming high-calorie foods.
- 135 million people in India are affected by obesity, and it varies from rural to urban and state wise.
- Urban populations and higher socio-economic states in India have a higher prevalence of obesity.
- 1.9 billion adults and 650 million are obese globally
- 2.8 million deaths have been reported due to obesity
- In India obesity prevalence varies from 11.8%to 31.3%and 16.9% to 36.3%
Abdominal obesity has been the major factor for cardiovascular disease and is more in women than men. Obesity is a global threat and is a medical and financial burden. Public awareness for obesity can be created by educating about the health consequences, obesity has on the Indian population.
Television and other media are propagating about the harmful effects of being overweight and obese through campaigns and advertisements. Government helps promote healthy eating without using salt, sugar, and oil in excess quantities.
Obesity is hindering the productivity of people by reducing their self-confidence and people experience fatigue due to excess fat, this results in poor performance. This has been skyrocketing recently because of paradigm shift in the eating habits lately mainly burger Pizza joints which tend to satiate but is unhealthy.
Therefore, obesity can be curbed by eating regularly and incorporating fruits and vegetables in the diet and foods enriched in nutrition. Regular physical exercise like walking and jogging will help in combating obesity and overweight.
Intermittent fasting has been found to be effective in managing weight. Healthy eating with lot of fibre, minerals and vitamins tend to make a person healthier efficient in managing weight. The Government regulations must be strict in India as the salt and fat content in the fast-food joints is triple than those in western countries. Western countries are highly detrimental of poor-quality foods.